Avifauna Around Pune

S. Ingalhallikar1, R. Purandare2, S. Nalavade3, S. Dhole4

1 Nishad, 12, Varshanand Society, Anandnagar, Hingne Road, Pune, 411 051.
 Email:
lexon@pn2.vsnl.net.in
2 No. 78, Kapila Society, near Patrakar Nagar, Pune, 411 016.
Email:
rahulpu@mahindrabt.com
3 Department Of Geography, Fergusson College, Shivaji Nagar, Pune, 411 005.
Email:
nalawade123@vsnl.net
4 Flat 5, Bldg. 3 Anand Park, Shankarshet Road, Pune 411 037.
Email:
konitari@hotmail.com


Introduction

Birds are perhaps the most studied amongst animal groups. Incidentally cities are known to be richer in birds than any other taxa. The richness of birds in Indian cities is mainly attributed to abundant food supply through garbage dumps etc., large number of planted trees that provide the nesting sites, shelter etc. and the traditional goodwill of Indians to all living beings (Burton, 1977). Many large cities in India support around 300 or more bird species with Delhi leading with 434 species, followed by Mumbai (350 species, Ali and Abdulali, 1941) and Bangalore (315 species, Karthikeyan, 1999), are some examples. Pune is no exception to this with 332 species annexed here. Besides the checklist, we also review ecological distribution and changes over times as inputs for future management.

Earlier Work

In the fourth quarter of 19th century many workers, mostly British civil and military officers, contributed to the study of the bird fauna of the Deccan plateau of which Pune is a part. The significant works of the period were those of Davidson and Wenden (1878), Butler (1880), Barnes (1888-1890) and Davidson (1895). Wenden (1885) described 55 shore and waterbirds from the lake Fife (Khadakwasla). Betham (1899, 1902) wrote extensively about birds nesting around Pune and neighbourhood. Trevenen (1922) mostly dealt with the game birds found in and around the station. Apte (1950-51, 1957) wrote a series of popular articles about the common birds of the area. Ambedkar’s (1964) landmark study about the breeding biology of the Common Baya Weaverbird was based at Pune. The first ever checklist for the city was given by Gole (1972), which included about 150 species. Goel (1976) came out with a checklist of about 80 bird species for Pune University campus, which is one of the most popular birding spots around the city. A more comprehensive checklist covering larger area was published by Friends of Animals Society (Mundkur and Kelker 1981). This checklist covered areas upto Sinhagad and included about 250 species. Zoological Survey of India (Singh, 1984) provided a short list of birds seen at two waterbodies near the city. Ingalhallikar and Gole (1987) recorded 290 species for a slightly larger area. Bradbeer (1987) published a checklist from London, which covered 295 bird species he observed from around Pune during the previous year. Mahabal and Lamba’s (1987) systematic list of 329 species and subspecies from ‘Pune and vicinity’ was based on bird specimens present in the collections of the Virus Research Station and the Western Regional Station of the Zoological Survey of India, Pune. Gole (1987) described owls around Pune while Ingalhallikar (1988) threw some light on the birds of prey around Pune. Gole (1989) gave a concise account of birds of Pune region. A recent addition to the checklist like literature was by Nalavade (1999) who recorded 90 bird species for the Fergusson college campus.

Besides mere listing, Pune birds have also been variously studied ecologically. Gole (1980) counted the city birds. The bird census covering 120 sq.km of the city area, enumerated about 55,000 birds belonging to 130 species with a density of 1.8 birds per acre. Nalavade (1981) geographically analyzed the city birds on the basis of their distribution. Gole (1985) studied the avifauna of the polluted stretches of the Mula-Mutha river and tried to describe some indicated species. Purandare (1984) did a systematic year-long study of breeding behaviour of Blackwinged Kite from a riverside grove along Mutha river. Mahabal (1989) made a comprehensive census of communally roosting birds and counted about 0.16 million birds for Pune city. His observations about Common Indian Myna are varied and include such aspects as roosting behaviour (1989), population fluctuations (1990), intra and interspecific assemblages (1992), communal display behavior (1993a), flocking behaviour (1993b), activity time budget (1993c) etc. Purandare (1994) conducted another significant study about the breeding biology of Large Pied Wagtail along with a list of 102 birds found in the wagtail habitat.

Many explored the appearances, occurrences, range extensions, first sighting/breeding records etc. of various birds. These include Abdulali (1961), Gole (1971, 1977), Ingalhallikar and Kothari (1978), Ingalhallikar and Dharap (1979), Mundkur (1981, 1983a, 1983b, 1984a, 1984b, 1985, 1986), Bapat (1982), Ara (1987), Ingalhallikar, Mundkur and Gole (1988). Watve’s (1989, 1994) observations about Bonnelli’s Eagle and his path breaking findings about the thinking ability of Small Green Bee-eater (Smitha et al, 1999) need special mention. Enthusiasts like A. Chaoji have been regularly monitoring and maintaining unpublished records of waterbirds under the Asian Waterfowl Census since 1990. Similarly, M. Gupte, S. Pande, S. Tambe have been regularly contributing articles supported with photographs to many Pune newspapers and magazines.

Distribution of birds across habitat types

The city and environs harbour six major habitat types that include Forest (F), Scrub (S), Grassland or ‘maals’ (G), Tree plantation (P) including garden, orchards and avenues, Houses (H), Agriculture (A) and Waterbodies (W). The first three habitat types (F,S,G) comprise the wilderness zones with low human impacts while the next three (P,H,A) comprise the impacted zone on land. Table 1 presents the number of species found across various habitat types. About a third of the species are waterbirds, primarily winter migratory. None of them are exclusive to impacted areas though a few such as Blackwinged stilt are most abundant in polluted water where hardly any other species survive. Even in terrestrial habitats, exclusive species are wanting though few species such as sparrow, crow and common myna are preferential of human habitations, being commensals of humans. Less than a tenth of the total species inhabit human habitations while only a third inhabit impacted zone, hardly any being exclusively so. On the contrary, over 90% of the total species inhabit the wilderness zone, over two thirds of them being exclusively so. This emphasises why hill forests, grasslands and waterbodies are essential to maintain over a third of the urban avifauna.

As a matter of fact, due to the mosaic of habitats the city region supports more bird species than the surrounding countryside. Populationwise also, the city region supports more birds than surrounding countryside. According to a survey made by one of the authors (SN), the average bird density within the city was 2.75 birds per hectare against 0.8 birds per hectare beyond the city’s eastern outskirts. Four species viz. House Sparrow, Crows (both House and Jungle), Common Myna and Blue Rock Pigeon form almost 70% of total bird population in western suburbs (mainly Kothrud). Four habitat types viz. Hill forest and scrub, tree plantations and waterbodies together support most of the urban avifauna. Wellwooded compounds with large, tall trees are popular roosting sites for communal birds like Crows, Mynas, Herons and Egrets, Parakeets and Kites. The five most important roosting areas for the communal birds include Peshwe park-Sarus Baug complex, Vaikuntha crematorium, Police Parade ground-Agriculture college campus, Pune University campus (old garden) and the Bund garden-Koregaon park-Empress garden belt.

Three species- House Sparrow, Common Myna and Blue Rock Pigeon exclusively build nests in human habitations. The number of individuals belonging to the following species increase during the monsoon season- Crows, Common Myna, Common Pariah Kite, Black Drongo, Longbilled and Whitebacked Vultures and Blue Jay. The heavy rainfall from the Ghat country probably forces these birds eastwards! According to Aitken (1905) - “The Common Kites go to Poona with the Government, for the monsoon months”. Almost all kinds of Egrets and Herons disappear from the city with the commencement of the monsoon. They reappear after the rainy season is over. They probably go down to Konkan for breeding (Mahabal, pers. comm.). House Crows, House Sparrows, Common Mynas, Roseringed Parakeets and Cattle Egrets go out of the city in the morning and return by evening. Their daily commuting routes more or less coincide with the river courses and the hill ranges.

Changes in the bird fauna

Remarkable changes in the status of some species and likely environmental factors that may be responsible for these changes are discussed in brief here. Forest dwelling raptors like Crested Serpent Eagle and Crested Hawk Eagle have declined in numbers though they have been observed to be nesting regularly. High rate of mortality may be due to infertile and brittle eggs! The Flycatchers and other forest dwelling insectivorous species have also shown a decline in numbers. Grassland raptors such as Buzzards, Harriers and Kestrels have declined. Laggar Falcon and Redheaded Merlin have also declined in number. Scavengers like Vultures have shown a sudden decline in the last few years. Reduction in number is alarming. They might be victims of epidemic reported all over India. Another possible localized reason is the closure of bone crushing factory at Kondhva, which used to be the main haunting ground of all sorts of Vultures.

Commoner species such as House Sparrows and Crows are showing declining trend particularly in the last five years. The proportion of Jungle Crow to House Crow has increased. The Redwhiskered Bulbul, once considered to be uncommon within the city has now started replacing the Redvented Bulbul as around Bibwewadi and Sinhagad road. Is this due to loss of treecover on the city outskirts? Little Brown Dove also seems to be declining. The removal of age-old Banyan and other fig trees from Pune-Paud road, Pune-Panshet road, Pune-Satara-Bangalore Highway and University road is probably preventing the Common Green Pigeon from visiting the area. Till recently the Green Pigeons were regular visitors to the roadside trees.

The waders along rivers, streams and lakes have declined significantly. However, there may not be much change in the population of Egrets and common Ducks. The rapid colonization of the riverbank and lakeshores could be the possible reason. The Little Cormorant, considered to be an uncommon bird in the past, has now become numerous especially along the rivers Mula-Mutha. The Blackwinged Stilt has also become numerous, especially around those spots, where sewage water enters the river. Pied Kingfisher has also declined in number, particularly along the much polluted stretch of the Mula-Mutha, where turbid water prevents it from fishing. The carpet of water hyacinth in the Mula river has also forced this beautiful Kingfisher to move elsewhere!

Yellow-wattled Lapwing, Indian Courser, Painted Sandgrouse, Brahminy Myna and some Quails are showing a declining trend. Non-insectivorous species of grassland and cultivations have not declined compared to the insectivorous species. Species such as Magpie-Robin, Iora, Sunbirds, Tailorbird, Redvented Bulbul, which are indirectly associated with urban habitats have not been affected. Owls as a whole except the Spotted Owlet are showing a declining trend.

To conclude, urbanisation is having significant impact on bird fauna, in terms of species diversity and composition as well as their populations. We hope that this glimpse will motivate many birdwatchers to carefully monitor these ongoing changes and guard against deleterious ones.

References

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Ambedkar, V. C. 1964. Some Indian Weaver Birds. Ph. D. Thesis. University of Bombay.

Anon 1997. Fauna of Delhi. Zoological Survey of India. Calcutta.

Asia-Pacific Migratory Waterbird Conservation Committee 2001. Asia-Pacific migratory
waterbird conservation strategy: 2001-2005. Wetlands International-Asia Pacific. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 67pp.
www.wetlands.org/publication.aspx?ID=f45b0a90-3ffe-42f8-9b63-c86da73c23e7

ISBN 983 9663 305

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Apte, M. V. 1957. Pakshinirikshan (Marathi). Extramural Education Board, University of Poona, Pune.

Ara, J. 1987. Birds seen at the Mula-Mutha sanctuary, Poona. Newsl. Birdw. 27:9-10:0-1.

Bapat, A. 1982. Reef Herons in Poona. Newsl. Birdw. 27: 9-10:10-12.

Barnes, H. E. 1988-90. Nesting in Western India (Vo.3-5).

Betham, R. M. 1899. Occassional notes on the Birds nesting in the neighbourhood of Poona. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 12 (4): 778-82.

Betham, R. M. 1902. Miscellaneous notes on the Birds’ nesting around Poona and elsewhere. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 14 (2): 396-400.

Bradbeer, P. 1987. Birds seen in Maharashtra (Mainly around Pune) in 1986-87.

Burton, J. A. 1977. Nature in the city in Worlds Apart (Vol. II). Double day and Co. New York.

Butler E. A. 1880. A tentative catalogue of birds of the Deccan and South Mahratta Country. Stray Feathers 9(5-6): 367-442.

Davidson, C. S. and Wenden, C. E. 1878. A contribution to the avifauna of the Deccan. Stray Feathers 7: 68-95.

Davidson, J. 1895. The Birds of the Bombay Presidensy. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 9 (4): 488-489.

Goel, S. C. 1976. The birds of the campus of Poona University. Jr. Poona Univ. (Sci Tech.) 48: 109-118.

Gole, P. 1971. Turnstone [Arenaria interpres i. (Linn.)] in Poona, Newsl. Birdw. 11(1): 3.

…………1972. Dwijgan awaghe Vrukshi (Marathi).

…………1977. Damoiselle Cranes near Poona. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 73 (2): 391-392.

…………1980. A March Bird Count in Poona. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 77 (1): 49-55.

…………1984. Birds of Pune region. Newsl. Birdw. 24:1-2:7-9.

…………1985. Birds of a polluted river. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 81 (3): 613-25.

Gole T. 1987. Owls around Pune. Jr. Ecol. Soc. 1: 67-69.

Ingalhallikar, S. 1988. Birds of Prey around Pune. Jr. Ecol. Soc. 1: 59-66.

…….and Dharap S. 1979. Nesting of the tree Swift at Sinhgad near Poona. Hornbill Apr. June: 17-18.

…….and Gole T. 1987. Checklist of Birds around Pune.

…….and Kothari, 1978. Purplerumped Sunbird as Foster Parents. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 74(3):530-531.

…….Mundkur, T. and Gole T. 1987. The Goshawk, Accipiter gentilis (Linn.) in Poona, Maharashtra. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 84(2):434-35.

Kartikayan S. 1999. The vertebrate and butterfly fauna of Bangalore: A checklist. WWF -India, Karnataka State Office. Bangalore.

Mahabal, A. 1983. Studies on population ecology and social behavious of Indian Myna Acridotheres trisits (Linn.) in Pune. Ph. D. Thesis, University of Pune, Pune.

…………….1990. Spatial and Temporal Fluctuations in the Population of Indian Myna Acridotheres trisits (Linn.) in Pune. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 87(3): 392-398.

Mahabal, A. 1992. Diurnal Intra- and Interspecific Assemblages of Indian Mynas. Biovigyanam 18(2): 116-118.

……….……1993 a. Communal Display Behavious of Indian Myna Acridotheres trisits (Linn.). Pavo 31 (1-2): 45-54.

……….……1993 b. Seasonal changes in the flocking behavious of Indian Myna Acridotheres trisits (Linn.). Biovigyanam 19(1-2): 55-64.

Mahabal, A. 1993 c. Activity-time budget of Indian Myna Acridotheres trisits (Linn.) during the breeding season. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 90(1): 96-97.

Mahabal A. and Lamba, 1987. On the birds of Poona and vicinity. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper No. 94. Calcutta.

Mundkur, T. 1981. Pashan lake and new addition to the birds of Poona. Newsl. Birdw. 21:7:12-13

Mundkur, T. 1983. Birds in Pune. Newsl.Birdw. 23:7-8:5-11.

Mundkur, T. 1983-89 Yellow Bittern nesting in Pune. Newsl. Birdw. 23:9-10:19.

Mundkur, T. 1984 painted Sandgrouse at Katraj Ghat.Pune. Newsl. Birdw. 24:5-6:17.

Mundkur, T. 1984. Occurrence of lesser Flamingo Pheniconaias minor (Geoffroy) in Poona, Maharashtra. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 81(2): 468.

Mundkur, T. 1985. Observations of the roof nesting habit of the Redwattled Lapwing (Vanellus indicus) in Poona, Maharashtra. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 82 (1): 195-196.

Mundkur, T. 1986. Yellow Bittern nesting, a new record for Poona. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 82 (3): 653-654.

Mundkur, T. and Kelkar, K. 1981. Checklist of Birds in and around Poona. Friends of Animals Soc. Pune. 12.

Naik, S.N. 1988. Demoiselle Cranes appear at Pune. WWf India Quarterly 9 (4): 17.

Nalawade, S.B. 1981. The Geographical Analysis of the Distribution of Avifauna in and around Poona. M. A. Dissertation, Geography Department, University of Poona.

Purandare, K. 1984. ‘Kapshichi diary’ (Marathi, Diary of the Black winged Kite). Nisarga Prakashan, Pune.

Purandare, K. 1994. ‘Muthevarcha Dhobi’ (Marathi, Wagtail along the river Mutha). Utkarsha Book Service, Pune.

Singh, D.F. 1984. The avifauna of two water bodies near Pune. Newsl. Birdw. 24:7-8:9.

Smith B., Thakar, J. and Watve, M. 1999. Do Bee eaters have theory of mind? Current Science Vol. 76 (4): 574-577.

Trevenen. W.B. 1922 Shikar near and around Poona. Jr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 28(4):1075-81.

Watve, M. et al. 1989 Food storage by Bonelli's Hawk Eagle, Hieraaetus fasciatusJr. Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. 86:446-447.

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Wenden 1885. Birds of the lake Fife, Khadakwasla. Poona District Gazeteer.


Table 1

Species Diversity and Exclusivity Distribution across habitat types

Species

Total

Unique

Agriculture (A)

100

1

Forest (F)

125

40

Scrub (S)

140

10

Grassland (G)

55

2

Habitations (H)

30

2

Plantations (P)

80

-

Waterbodies (W)

105

80

Wilderness (FGSWu)

300

180

Impacted zone (AHPWp)

105

10

Wu- un/less-impacted Waterbodies Wp- polluted waterbodies


ANNEXURE: Birds Of Pune Urban Area
CODES :
Seasonality:-
R- Resident, L* - Local Migratory, R/L - Resident but some population locally moving, M- Winter Migratory, BM - Breeding Migrant, PM - Passage Migrant.
Abundance:- ab- Abundant, c- Common, o- Occasional, u- Uncommon, r-Rare, s-Stray; Changes:- d- decrease, I-increase
* L - Moving short distances within the distribution range in search of food, water, breading site etc.

Habitat Code

Habitat type

Typical localities

F

Forest

Sinhagad, Katraj.

S

Scrub

Bhamburda, Chandani Chowk, Pachgao.

G

Grassland

Malwadi,Pune-Solapur,Pune-Nagpur Rd.

P

Plantation, gardens, avenues

University, Prabhat Road etc.

H

Houses

City core

A

Agricultural

Malwadi, Paud, Pashan,Manjari etc.

C

Cliffs

Sinhagad

R

Rocky Scarps

Sinhagad

Wi

Water inside

Pashan lake,Kawdi,Mula-Mutha etc.

Wb

Water bank

 

Wa

Water aerial

 

Wv

Waterside Vegetation

 

Wp

Polluted Waterbody

 

 

Hand-book No.

Common Name

Season-ality

Habitats preferred

Abun- dance

Change

5

Little Grebe

R

Wi

c

 

26

Cormorant

R/L

Wi

o

d

27

Indian Shag

R/L

Wi

o

 

28

Little Cormorant

R/L

Wip

c

i

29

Darter

R/L

Wi

u?

 

36

Grey Heron

L

Wb

o

i

37

Purple Heron

L

Wb

o

i

38

Little Green Heron

R/L

Wb

u

 

42

Pond Heron

R/L

Wbp

c

 

44

Cattle Egret

R/L

GWb

c

 

46

Large Egret

R/L

Wb

o

 

47

Smaller Egret

R/L

Wb

c

 

49

Little Egret

R/L

Wbp

c

 
50 Reef Heron L Wi,Wb u  

52

Night Heron

R

Wbp

o

i

55

Little Bittern

M

Wb

r

d

56

Chestnut Bittern

R

Wb

o

 

57

Yellow Bittern

R

Wb

u

 

60

Painted stork

L

Wb

o

 

61

Openbill Stork

R/L

Wb

o

 

62

Whitenecked Stork

R

Wb

c

 
63 White Stork M Wb,Wv u  

65

Black Stork

M

Wb

u

 

69

White Ibis

L

Wb

o

 

70

Black Ibis

R

Wb

o

 

71

Glossy Ibis

R/L/M

Wb

o

 

72

Spoonbill

L

Wb

o

 

73

Flamingo

M

Wbi

o

 

88

Lesser Whistling Teal

R/L

Wbi

o

 
89 Large Whistling Teal M Wi,Wb u  

90

Ruddy Shelduck

M

Wi

o

 

91

Common Shelduck

M

Wi

u

 

93

Pintail

M

AWi

c

 

94

Common Teal

M

Wi

c

 

97

Spotbill Duck

R

Wi

c

 

100

Mallard

M

Wi

u

 

101

Gadwall

M

Wi

u

 

103

Wigeon

M

GWi

o

 

104

Garganey

M

Wi

c

 

105

Shoveller

M

Wi

c

 

107

Redcrested Pochard

M

Wi

u

 

108

Common Pochard

M

Wi

o

 

109

White-eyed Pochard

M

Wi

o

 

111

Tufted Duck

M

Wi

o

 

114

Cotton Teal

R

Wi

c

 

115

Comb Duck

R/L

Wi

o

 

124

Blackwinged Kite

R

AG

c

 

130

Honey Buzzard

R/L

F

o

 

133

Pariah Kite

R

AFGHPSWa

c

 

135

Brahminy Kite

R

Wa

u

 

138

Shikra

R

AFGPS

c

 

148

Sparrow Hawk

M

F

o

 

153

Longlegged Buzzard

M

AF

u

 

157

White Eyed Buzzard

R

AFS

o

d

161

Crested Hawk Eagle

R

F

o

d

163

Bonelli's Eagle

R/L

AFS

o

d

164

Booted Hawk Eagle

M

F

o

d

168

Tawny Eagle

R/L

AHS

o

 

171

Lesser Spotted Eagle

L

AF

u

d

172

Black Eagle

R/L

F

o

 

182

Longbilled Vulture

R

ACHR

o

d

185

Whitebacked Vulture

R

F

c

d

187

Egyptian Vulture

R

FP

o

d

190

Pale Harrier

M

AGS

o

d

191

Montagu's Harrier

M

AGWa

o

d

193

Marsh Harrier

M

Wa

c

 

195

Short Toed Eagle

L

AF

c

 

197

Crested Serpent Eagle

R

F

c

 

203

Osprey

M

W

u

 

208

Laggar Falcon

R/L

AFS

o

d

211

Shaheen Falcon

R

AHR

o

d

212

Hobby

M

FS

u

 

219

Redheaded Merlin

R

AS

o

 

221

Lesser Kestrel

M

ACGS

u

 

224

Kestrel

R/M

ACGS

c

 

241

Painted Partridge

R

GS

c

 

246

Grey Partridge

R

AFS

c

 

250

Grey Quail

M

AG

c

 

252

Rain Quail

R/L

GS

c

 

253

Bluebreasted Quail

R

GS

o

 

255

Jungle Bush Quail

R

FS

c

 

260

Rock Bush Quail

R

S

c

 

275

Red Spurfowl

R

S

o

 

278

Painted Spurfowl

R

FS

r

 

301

Grey Junglefowl

R

FS

u

 

311

Common Peafowl

R

AFS

o

 

314

Yellowlegged Button Quail

R

GS

u

 

318

Common Bustard Quail

R

AFGS

u

 

326

Demoiselle Cranes

M

AWb

o

 

340

Ruddy Crake

R

Wv

o

 

342

Brown Crake

R

Wv

o

 

343/344

Whitebreasted Waterhen

R

Wvp

c

 

347

Indian Moorhen

R

Wv

c

 

349

Purple Moorhen

R

Wv

c

 

350

Coot

R/M

Wi

c

 

358

Pheasant Tailed Jacana

R

Wv

c

 

359

Bronzewinged Jacana

R

Wvp

o

 

366

Redwattled Lapwing

R

AGSWb

c

 

370

Yellow-wattled Lapwing

R

AG

o

d

373

Eastern Golden Plover

M

GWbv

o

 

380

Little Ringed Plover

R/L

Wb

o

 

381

Kentish Plover

M

Wb

u

 

388

Curlew

M

Wb

u

 

389

Blacktailed Godwit

M

Wb

o

 

391

Bartailed Godwit

M

Wb

u

 

393/394

Redshank

M

Wb

c

 

395

Marsh Sandpiper

M

Wb

o

 

396

Greenshank

M

Wb

c

 

397

Green Sandpiper

M

Wb

c

 

398

Spotted Sandpiper

M

Wb

c

 

401

Common Sandpiper

M

Wb

c

 

406

Pintail Snipe

M

GWb

o

 

409

Fantail Snipe

M

Wb

c

 

410

Jack Snipe

M

Wb

o

 

414

Sanderling

M

Wb

u

 

416

Little Stint

M

Wb

c

 

417

Temminck's Stint

M

Wb

o

 

420

Dunlin

M

Wb

o

 

426

Ruff and Reeve

M

Wb

o

 

429

Painted Snipe

L

Wb

u

 

430

Blackwinged Stilt

M

Wbp

c

 

436

Stone Curlew

R

PS

o

 

437

Great Stone Plover

L

Wb

o

 

440

Indian Courser

R

AGS

o

 

444

Small Indian Pratincole

L

Wb

o

 

454

Brownheaded Gull

M

Wa

o

 

455

Blackheaded Gull

M

Wa

o

 

458

Whiskered Tern

L

Wa

c

 

460

Gullbilled Tern

L

Wa

c

 

463

Indian River Tern

L

Wa

c

 

475

Little Tern

M

Wa

o

d

487

Indian Sandgrouse

R

AGS

o

 

492

Painted Sandgrouse

R

SWb

u

 

504

Yellowlegged Green Pigeon

R

FP

o

d

517

Blue Rock Pigeon

R

AHP

c

 

521

Nilgiri Wood Pigeon

R/L

F

o

 

533

Rufous Turtle Dove

RL

F

o

 

534

Ring Dove

R/L

AHPS

c

 

535

Red Turtle Dove

R/L

AHS

o

 

537

Spotted Dove

R

FS

c

 

541

Little Brown Dove

R

AHPS

c

d

546

Alexandrine Parakeet

R

AFP

u

 

550

Roseringed Parakeet

R

AFP

c

 

558

Blossomheaded Parakeet

R

FS

c

 

566

Indian Lorikeet

R

F

o

 

570

Pied Crested Cuckoo

BM

FS

o

 

573

Common Hawk Cuckoo

R/L

AFPS

c

 

576

Indian Cuckoo

M

F

o

 

578

The Cuckoo

M

F

o

 

582

Indian Baybanded Cuckoo

M

F

u

 

584

Indian Plaintive Cuckoo

BM

FPS

c

 

588

Drongo-Cuckoo

BM

F

u

 

590

Koel

R

AFHPS

c

 

598

Sirkeer Cuckoo

R

FS

o

 

602

Crow-Pheasant

R

AFPS

c

 

606

Barn Owl

R

AHPS

c

 
615 Peninsular Scops Owl ? FP u  

622

Collared Scops Owl

R

F

o

d

627

Great Horned Owl

R

FS

c

 

631

Brown Fish Owl

R

F(Wa)

u

 

636

Barred Jungle Owlet

R

FS

o

 

652

Spotted Owlet

R

AHPS

c

 

657

Mottled Wood Owl

R

AFP

o

d

659

Brown Wood Owl

R

F

o

 

671

Indian Jungle Nightjar

R

F

o

 

680

Common Indian Nightjar

R/L

AGHS

c

 

694

Alpine Swift

R/L

R

o

 

703

House Swift

R

HC

c

 

707

Palm Swift

R

AFGPS

o

 

709

Crested Tree Swift

R

F

o

 

719

Lesser Pied Kingfisher

R/L

Wau

c

 

724

Small Blue Kingfisher

R

Wa

c

 

736

Whitebreasted Kingfisher

R

AFPWa

c

 

748

Bluetailed Bee-eater

PM

FP

u

 

750

Small Green Bee-eater

R/L

AGHPS

c

 

756

Indian Roller

L

AFPS

c

 

765

Hoopoe

R/L

AFPS

c

d

767

Common Grey Hornbill

R

AFPS

c

d

785

Small Green Barbet

R

F

c

 

792

Coppersmith

R

FPS

c

 

796

Wryneck

M

AS

o

d

820

Goldenbacked Woodpecker

R

FPS

o

 

847

Yellowfronted Pied Woodpecker

R

FPS

c

d

852

Pigmy Woodpecker

R

FPS

r

 

867

Indian Pitta

PM

FS

u

 

877

Redwinged Bush Lark

R

GS

c

 

878

Ashycrowned Finch-Lark

R

AGS

c

 

882

Rufoustailed Finch-Lark

R

AGS

c

 

886

Short-toed Lark

M

G

u

 

901

Malabar Crested Lark

R

AGS

c

 

902

Sykes's Crested Lark

R

AGS

o

 

907

Small Indian Skylark

R/L

AGS

o

 

910

Collared Sand Martin

M

Wa

u

 

912

Plain Sand Martin

M

AGS

o

 

913

Crag Martin

M

R

c

 

914

Dusky Crag Martin

R

AGHPSWa

c

 

916

Swallow

M

APWa

c

 

921

Wiretailed Swallow

R

ASWa

c

 

922

Indian Cliff Swallow

L

GS

c

 

925/927

Redrumped Swallow

R

AGHPS

c

 

930

House Martin

M

AGPS

u

 

933

Grey Shrike

L

APS

o

d

940

Baybacked Shrike

R/L

APS

o

 

943

Pale Brown Shrike

M

AS

u

 

946

Rufousbacked Shrike

R

AFPS

c

 

949

Brown Shrike

M

FSWv

u

d

953

Golden Oriole

R

FPS

c

d

959

Blackheaded Oriole

R

FP

o

 

963

Black Drongo

R

AFGHPS

c

 

965

Grey Drongo

M

FS

o

 

967

Whitebellied Drongo

R/L

F

o

 

982

Ashy Swallow-Shrike

R/L

FGS

u

 

987

Greyheaded Myna

R/L

FS

u

 

994

Brahminy Myna

R

AGHPS

c

 

996

Rosy Pastor

M

AGS

c

 

997

Starling

M

APWa

r

 

1006

Common Myna

R

AGHPS

ab

 

1008

Bank Myna

R

AHPWb

o

 

1010

Jungle Myna

R

APS

c

i

1032

Indian Tree Pie

R

FS

c

 

1049

House Crow

R

AHPWa

ab

d

1057

Jungle Crow

R

AFHPS

ab

i

1070

Common Wood Shrike

R

AFPS

c

 

1072

Large Cuckoo Shrike

R

AFS

o?

 

1078

Blackheaded Cuckoo Shrike

R

FS

o

 

1093

Small Minivet

R

FPS

c

 

1096

Whitebellied Minivet

R

FS

u

d

1100

Common Iora

R

AFHPS

c

 

1104

Goldenfronted Chloropsis

R

AFPS

o

 

1120

Redwhiskered Bulbul

R

AFPS

c

i

1128

Redvented Bulbul

R

AFHPS

ab

 
1138 Whitebrowed Bulbul R? F r  
1143 Yellowbrowed Bulbul R? F o  

1149

Black Bulbul

R/L

F

u?

 

1154

Spotted Babbler

R

FS

o

 

1173

Slatyheaded Scimitar Babbler

R

FS

o

 

1220/1222

Rufousbellied Babbler

R

FGS

o

 

1231

Yelloweyed Babbler

R

FS

c

 

1254

Common Babbler

R

GS

u

 

1258

Large Grey Babbler

R

APS

c

 

1262

Jungle Babbler

R

AFPS

c

 

1389

Quaker Babbler

R

FS

o

 

1407

Brown Flycatcher

L

AFPS

u

 

1411/1412

Redbreasted Flycatcher

M

FPS

c

 

1421

Whitebrowed Blue Flycatcher

R

FPS

u

i?

1435

Whitebellied Blue Flycatcher

L

F

o

 

1442

Tickell's Blue Flycatcher

R

FPS

o

i?

1445

Verditer Flycatcher

L

F

o

 

1448

Greyheaded Flycatcher

M

F

c

 

1458

Whitespotted Fantail Flycatcher

R

FPS

o

 

1461

Paradise Flycatcher

L

FP

o

 

1465

Blacknaped Blue Flycatcher

R

FP

c

 

1498

Streaked Fantail Warbler

R

AG

c

l?

1503

Franklin's Wren Warbler

R

FPS

c

 

1506

Rufousfronted Wren Warbler

R

S

o

 

1511

Indian Wren Warbler

R

FS

o

d

1517

Ashy Wren Warbler

R

AGHPS

c

 

1521

Jungle Wren Warbler

R

GS

c

 

1535

Tailor Bird

R

AHPS

c

 

1547

Bristled Grass Warbler

R

GR

o

 

1550

Great Reed Warbler

R/M

SWv

o

 

1556

Blyth's Reed Warbler

M

AS

c

 

1562

Booted Tree Warbler

M

S

o

 

1565

Orphean Warbler

M

S

u

 

1567

Lesser Whitethroat

M

S

o

d

1575

Chiffchaff or Brown Leaf Warbler

M

GPS

c

 

1645

Bluethroat

M

APWv

u?

d

1661

Magpie Robin

R

AFHPS

c

 

1665

Shama

R

F

u

 

1671

Black Redstart

M

AS

c

 

1697

Collared Bush Chat

M

AS

o

 

1700/1701

Pied Bush Chat

R

APS

c

 

1719

Indian Robin

R

APS

c

 

1723

Blueheaded Rock Thrush

M

F

u?

 

1726

Blue Rock Thrush

M

FS

c

 

1728

Malabar Whistling Thrush

L

F

o

 

1734

Whitethroated Ground Thrush

R

F

o

 

1753

Blackbird

R

FP

c

 

1794

Grey Tit

R

PS

c

 

1810

Yellowcheeked Tit

R

FP

o

 
1855 Tree Pipit M AGS c  

1859

Indian or Paddyfield Pipit

R

AGS

c

 

1868

Brown Rock Pipit

R

GSWb

c

 

1876

Yellow Wagtail

M

Wb

o

 

1881

Yellowheaded Wagtail

M

Wb

o

 

1884

Grey Wagtail

M

Wbp

c

 

1885

White Wagtail

M

APWb

c

 

1891

Large Pied Wagtail

R

Wb

c

 

1892

Thickbilled Flowerpecker

R

FPS

o

I?

1899

Tickell’s Flowerpecker

R

FPS

c

d?

1907

Purplerumped Sunbird

R

FHPS

c

 

1909

Small Sunbird

R

F

u

 

1917

Purple Sunbird

R

FPS

c

 
1929 Yellowbacked Sunbird R? F u  

1933

White-eye

R

FPS

c

 

1938

House Sparrow

R

AFGHPS

ab

 

1949

Yellowthroated Sparrow

R

AFS

c

d

1957

Weaver Bird

R

AGS

c

 

1964

Red Munia

R

GWv

c

 

1966

Whitethroated Munia

R

PS

c

 

1974

Spotted Munia

R

AFPS

c

 

1978

Blackheaded Munia

R

Awv

o

d

2011

Common Rosefinch

M

S

c

 

2043

Blackheaded Bunting

M

A

u

 

2050

Greynecked Bunting

L

S

o

d

2057

Striolated Bunting

R/L

S

o

 

2060

Crested Bunting

R

FGS

c

I


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