Tree Diversity of Pune Urban Area: Cosmetic Increase?

Ankur. A. Patwardhan

Abhayankur, 14 Nityanand Society, Dhankawadi, Pune - 411043
Email:
ankurpatwardhan@hotmail.com


Introduction

Trees are amongst most significant elements of landscape, both due to biomass and diversity. Tree diversity of Pune Corporation Campus (PCC) was first comprehensively recorded by Vartak (1964) who had earlier (1960) recorded the floristic composition of Katraj hill forests. This area was resurveyed partially by Varadpande (1973) while fully by Ghate (1989). Amongst hill forests, Kulkarni et al (1989) studied the vegetation composition of Parvati-Pachgaon. recorded the diversity in Ganeshkhind area. In 1990 The first attempt to detect floristic changes was by Joshi et al (1992) who later (1997) also recorded plants from Vetal hills. Besides attempting another re-survey for change detection, the present study also evaluates role of human influences at a broad level, in and around Pune city.

Methodology

The present paper is based on survey during 1999 and 2000, of the PCC and neighbouring hills viz. Katraj, National Defense Academy (NDA) campus and Sinhgarh. Various localities within this area were visited for species enumeration during different seasons, with focus on localities indicated in the literature as hosting rare species. Katraj hills harbour dry deciduous forests, with 5-10 m tall trees, often interspersed amidst grasses. NDA campus is moister, and houses taller (10-15 m) forests and scrub, prone to fire. Sinhgarh houses most moist forests in the area, with tallest trees (15-20 m) in the valley. The forests within the PCC are located at Parvati Pachgaon, Law College (Vetal, Bhamburda) hills and are comprised dwarf, scattered natural trees (3-6 m tall) amidst planted exotic trees. At each of these localities, ecological preferences of each species, influencing factors etc. were also noted and discussed with local people.

Results And Discussion

A total of 380 tree species have till date been recorded from the study area, two third of them being cultivated, mostly exotics and one third wild, native. To begin with, Vartak (1964) recorded 293 tree species from PCC that forms much of the present study area. Three fourth of the trees were recorded at present within PCC. Ghate (1990) and present survey added 33 species to list but could not record 57 species recorded by Vartak (1964), majority of them being exotic species of Eucalyptus or palms. Some of these may not be actual losses but surprising misidentifications by Vartak (1960) such as Bocagea dalzelli, known since long to inhabit evergreen-semievergreen forests much moister areas, nearest locality from Pune city being 70 km away (Santapau, 1958). Some glaring omissions by Vartak (1960) include commonest species such as Sterculia urens, Semecarpus anacardium, Miliusa tomentosa,, Madhuca indica, Parkinsonia aculeata, Diospyros montana and Randia dumetorum. Thus on the whole, the floritic richness of the study area remains much the same notwithstanding the striking differences as per the records. However, Joshi et al (1992) have reported loss of 30 flowering plants including 4 tree species viz. Grewia laevigata, Morinda citrifolia,, Randia dumetorum and Schrebera swietenoides over the last 7 decades from Vetal Hill due to human pressures like cutting and fires. However, these species do exist elsewhere such as Katraj at present.

Wide niched species include Mangifera indica, Syzygium cumini, Ficus benghalensis, F. glomerata, Pongamia pinnata and Cassia fistula that inhabit most habitat types and localities. Dominant forest species include Tectona grandis, Odina wodier, Terminalia bellerica, Buchanania lanzan, Gmelina arborea, Cochlospermum gossypium etc. C. gossypium and Diospyros melanoxylon show clumped distribution. Holarrhena antidysenterica and Helicteris isora form the forest undergrowth. Scrub is dominated by thorny species such as Acacia leucophloea, A. chundra, Zizyphua xylopyra, Meytenus rothiana etc. while F. arnottiana inhabits rocky outcrops. Pongamia pinnata and Syzygium cumini are predominantly seen near ravines, especially streambanks.

Most poular plantation and habitation dwelling trees are exotic and include Rain tree (Samnea saman ), Copper pod ( Peltophorum ferruginum), Gulmohar (Delonix regia), Silver Oak (Grevillea robusta ), Bottle palm (Roystonea regia), Asoka (Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula) Fountain tulip (Spathodea companulata) Sayami Cassia (Cassia siamea) Neelmohor (Jacaranda mimisaefolia) and Cork (Millingtonia hortensis). Trees dominating plantations particularly on forest department lands include Eucalyptus, Gliricidia, Leucaena and Dalbergia sissoo. Unfortunately, the increase in populations of most of these exotic, ornamental trees has been at the cost of local, fruit tree species with decreasing populations over the last few decade. These include Neem (Azadiracha indica), Mango (Mangifera indica), Jackfruit (Artocarpus integra) Tamarind (Tamarindus indica), Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Guava (Psidium guajava), Banyan (Ficus bengalensis), Peepal (F. religiosa) and Wild fig (F. glomerata). Some of them like the figs (Ficus spp.) were common as avenue and habitation trees earlier, but no more planted and in fact chopped down due to increasing congestion. Mango, Guava etc. were common in orchards along city fringes but now encroached by housing colonies. The famous Babul-van i.e. gallery thorn forest along river banks dominated by Acacia nilotica trees are all cut and encroached, which has also erased stretches of Wild date palm (Phoenix sylvestris).

Our patterns of species distributions and changes parallel those reported by Gadgil and Parthsarathy (1977) for Bangalore city, though we have no census unlike them. Such dynamics could be quantified for making feasible, informed recommendations by accessing and analysing the enormous tree census data available with the Municipal Corporation (Khaire Y., pers. comm.)

Acknowledgements

RANWA sponsored this study. Utkarsh Ghate and Mandar Datar shared their data and ideas. These studies have been greatly encouraged by Mr. Y.S.Khaire, Garden Superintendent, PCC, besides my liberal guide Dr. Gandhe. I am obliged to them all.

Bibliography

Deshpande, M.V. et al, 2000. Flora and Fauna of NCL.

Gadgil, M. and Parthasarathy, M.A. 1977. Trees of Bangalore. Indian Farming 26: 64-68.

Ghate, U. 1990. The Arboreal Flora of Poona Corporation Campus. RANWA, Pune.

Ghate V. S. and Vartak, V. D. 1981. Studies on the aquatic flowering plants from Greater Pune area. Part I. Enumeration. Jr. Poona Univ. (Sci. & Tech.) 54: 121-129.

Joshi V. N., Kumbhojkar M. S. and Kulkarni D. K. 1992. Changing floristic pattern of Chatushringi-Vetal plateau near Pune- A comparative study. Jr. Econ. Tax. Bot. 16 (1): 133-139.

Kulkarni D. K., Kumbhojkar, M. S. and Vartak V. D. 1989. Floristic studies on the Pachgaon Parvati hill near Pune. Jr. Econ. Tax. Bot. 13(1): 117-155.

Razi, B. A. 1951. Some aspects of vegetation of Poona and neighbouring districts. Jr. Poona Univ. (Sci. & Tech.) 1(2): 1-57.

Santapau H. 1951. A contribution to the flora Simhgad hill, Poona district. Poona Agri. Coll. Mag. 41(4): 270-284.

Santapau, H.(1958. The flora of Khandala Hills. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Varadpande, D. G. 1974. The flora of Ganeshkhind, Poona. Jr. Poona Univ. (Sci. & Tech.) 44: 97-133.

Vartak V. D. 1959. The flora of the Fergusson College Campus, Poona District. Fergusson College Magazine. 50(2): 1-4.

Vartak. V. D. 1960. The study of the flora of the Katraj Ghat. Jr. Poona Univ. (Sci. & Tech.) 22: 85-117.

Vartak. V. D. 1964. The arboreal flora of the Poona Corporation Campus. Jr. Poona Univ. (Sci. & Tech.) 44: 97-133.


Table 1 Species richness recorded by successive surveys

The surveys compared include Vartak (1964), Ghate (1990) and Patwardhan (present)

Authors

No. of species

Vartak, Ghate & Patwardhan

207

Vartak and Ghate only

4

Vartak and Patwardhan only

18

Ghate and Patwardhan only

58

Vartak only

57

Ghate only

3

Patwardhan only

33

Total

380

Table 2 Tree species richness and exclusiveness across habitat types

 

No. of Total Species

No. of Unique Species

Exclusive species as % of total

Forest (F)

94

71

75

Scrub (S)

62

42

67

Plantations (P)

245

193

79

Habitation (H)

57

7

12

Wilderness (FS)

137

127

93

Influenced (HP)

252

243

96


ANNEXURE : Tree species distribution in Pune urban area

HB (Habitat Preference): F - Forest, S - Scrub, P - Plantations, H - Habitations

AB (Abundance): A- abundant, C- common, O- occassional, R- rare

AU (Authors): G- Ghate (1990), P- Patwardhan (present), V- Vartak (1964)

Localities: AGC- Abasaheb Garware College, BG- Bund Garden, BMCC- Brihan Mharashtra College of Commerce, BSI- Botanical Survey Of India, DG- Deccan Gymkhana, EG- Empress Garden, FCBG -Fergusson College Botanical Garden, FN- Forest Nursery, JNH - Jawaharlal Nehru Herbarium, K - Katraj, KG - Kirkee Garden, KNP - Kamla Nehru Park, MACS - Maharashtra Association For Cultivation Of Sciences, N-National Defense Academy, NIBM - National Institute Of Business Management, P - Parvati-Pachgaon, PUC - Pune University Campus, PUC-BG - PUC Botanical Garden PUC-MB- PUC Main Building, S-Sinhgarh, SN- SN, SPC - S. P. College.

CHG (Change): I-increase, D-decrease DF (driving force): Af- Afforestation

* - New additions to list # - not seen or heard of presently Ex.-Locally Extinct

 

FAMILY, Genus

SPECIES

HB

AB

AU

LOCALITY

CHG

DF

DILLENIACEAE

             

Dillenia

indica

F

O

VGP

     

MAGNOLIACEAE

           

Michelia

champaca

HP

C

VGP

     

ANNONACEAE

             

Annona

muricata

PH

R

VGP

FCBG

   

Annona

reticulata

P

O

VGP

SN

   

Annona

squamosa

P

C

VGP

     

Bocagea

dalzelli

FS

R

V

K

 

mistaken

*Miliusa

tomentosa

F

O

VGP

K

   

Polyalthia

longifolia

PH

C

VGP

     

Polyalthia

longifolia var. pendula

PH

AB

VGP

 

I

Beuaty

MENISPERMACEAE

           

Cocculus

laurifolius #

P

R

V

     

CAPPARIDACEAE

           

Capparis

grandis

P

O

VGP

BMCC

   

Crataeva

religiosa var. nurvala

P

O

VGP

     

BIXACEAE

             

Bixa

orellana

P

C

VGP

 

I

 

Cochlospermum

gossypium

F

O

VGP

     

*Flacourtia

latifolia

S

O

P

N

   

Flacourtia

ramontchi #

F

O

P

S

   

GUTTIFERAE

             

Garcinia

livingstonei #

F

R

V

     

Calophyllum

inophyllum

F

O

VGP

MACS, AGC

   

Garcinia

indica

F

O

VGP

     

*Mesua

ferrea

P

O

P

NCL

   

Ochrocarpus

longifolius

P

O

GP

SPC, PUC, AGC, DG

MALVACEAE

             

Hibiscus

mutabilis

P

C

VGP

     

*Kydia

calycina

F

O

VP

S

   

Thespesia

populnea

P

C

VGP

     

DIPTEROCARPACEAE

           

Shorea

spp.

F

R

GP

Smruti - Van, PUC-BG

BOMBACACEAE

             

*Chorisia

speciosa

H

R

P

Model Colony, Yena Bunglow

Adansonia

digitata

P

O

VGP

PUC

   

Bombax

ceiba

F

AB

VGP

     

*Bombax

ellipticum

P

R

P

PUC-BG

   

Ceiba

pentandra

F

C

VGP

     

*Pachera

insignis

P

R

P

SN

   

STERCULIACEAE

           

Guzuma

ulmifolia

P

O

VGP

     

Helicteres

isora

F

O

GP

     

Kleinhovia

hospita

P

O

VGP

     

Pterospermum

acerifolium

H

C

VGP

     

Sterculia

alata

P

C

VGP

     

Sterculia

urens

F

O

VP

     

Sterculia

foetida

F

O

VGP

     

Sterculia

guttata

F

O

VGP

     

Theobroma

cacao

P

R

GP

SPC

   

*Dombeya

acutangula

P

R

P

SN

   

*Grewia

laevigata

S

O

P

N

   

Grewia

tiliaefolia

FS

C

VGP

     

*Grewia

pilosa

S

O

P

K,S

   

Grewia

asiatica

P

O

VGP

     

Erinocarpus

nimmonii #

F

R

V

     

ELAEOCARPACEAE

           

Muntingia

calabura

P

C

VGP

 

I

Birds

Elaeocarpus

ganitrus #

F

R

V

FCBG

   

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE

           

Guaiacum

officinale

P

R

VGP

PUC

   

GERANIACEAE

             

Averrhoa

bilimbi

P

R

VGP

     

RUTACEAE

             

Aegle

marmelos

S

C

VGP

     

*Citrus

aurantium

P

R

P

     

Citrus

maxima

P

O

VGP

     

Citrus

medica

P

O

VP

     

Citrus

medica var. acida

P

C

GP

     

Citrus

medica var. limonium

P

O

GP

     

Citrus

sinensis

P

R

VGP

     

Ferronia

elephantum

P

C

VGP

     

*Limonia

acidissima #

P

R

V

P

   

Murraya

koenigii

H

C

VGP

     

*Murraya

paniculata

H

O

P

     

SIMAROUBACEAE

           

Ailanthus

excelsa

S

C

VGP

     

Balanitis

roxburghii

S

O

VGP

N

   

Ochna

squarrosa

P

R

VGP

PUC-BG

   

Boswellia

serrata

F

C

VGP

     

Bursera

delphinchinensis

P

R

GP

BSI

   

*Commifera

mukul

P

R

P

JNH

   

Garuga

pinnata

F

O

VGP

     

MELIACEAE

             

Amoora

rohituka

P

C

VGP

 

I

 

Azadirachta

indica

H

AB

VGP

 

D

 

Cedrela

toona #

P

R

VG

     

Chloroxylon

swietenia

S

O

VGP

     

Heynea

trijuga #

F

R

V

K

   

Khaya

anthotheca

P

O

VGP

     

Khaya

senegalensis

P

R

GP

 

I

 

Melia

composita

S

R

VP

     

Melia

azadarach

P

C

VGP

 

I

 

Swietenia

macrophylla

P

O

VGP

KNP

   

Swietenia

mahogany

P

AB

VGP

 

I

 

CELASTRACEAE

           

Cassine

glauca

F

C

VGP

     

Meytenus

rothiana

S

C

GP

     

*Meytenus

montana

S

O

P

K,S

   

RHAMNACEAE

             

Zizyphus

jujuba

FS

C

VGP

     

Zizyphus

xyloprya

S

O

VGP

     

SAPINDACEAE

             

Dodonea

viscosa

P

O

VGP

     

Filicium

decipiens

P

O

VGP

     

Litchi

chinensis

P

R

VGP

FN, BSI

   

*Harpulia

zanguebarica

 

R

P

MACS, PUC-BG

 

Sapindus

laurifolius

F

C

VGP

     

Schleichera

trijuga

F

O

VGP

N,S

   

ANACARDIACEAE

           

Anacardium

occidentale

HP

O

VGP

     

Buchnania

lanzan

F

C

VGP

     

Mangifera

indica

FPH

AB

VGP

 

D

 

Odina

woodier

F

C

GP

     

Semecarpus

anacardium

F

C

VGP

     

Spondias

pinnata

P

O

GP

     

MORINGACEAE

             

Moringa

oleifera

PH

C

VGP

     

PAPILIONACEAE

           

Butea

frondosa

FSP

C

VGP

     

Castanospermum

australe

P

R

GP

Latkar Press

   

Dalbergia

latifolia

S

C

VGP

 

FN, FC

 

Dalbergia

melanoxylon

S

C

VGP

 

I

 

Dalbergia

sissoo

S

C

VGP

 

I

Af

Dalbergia

lanceolaria

FS

C

VGP

     

Erythrina

suberosa

FS

R

GP

     

Erythrina

stricta

F

R

GP

Near FC

   

Erythrina

variegata

HP

C

VGP

 

I

Bueaty

Erythrina

variegata var. parcelli #

P

 

G

     

Erythrina

variegata var. alba

P

R

GP

Mitramandal

   

Erythrina

variegata var. candida

P

R

VP

N

   

Gliricidia

sepium

P

AB

VGP

 

I

Af

Milletia

ovalifolia

P

O

VGP

     

Ougeinia

oojeinensis

S

R

VGP

AGC

   

Pongamia

pinnata

P

C

VGP

     

Pterocarpus

marsupium

F

R

GP

N,K

   

Sesbania

grandiflora

HP

C

VGP

     

CAESALPINIACEAE

           

Bauhinia

racemosa

F

O

VGP

     

Bauhinia

galpini

P

R

GP

PUC-BG

   

Bauhinia

hookeri

P

R

VGP

MACS

   

Bauhinia

monandra

P

O

VP

P, FN

   

Bauhinia

retusa

P

R

GP

MACS, Mitramandal

Bauhinia

tomentosa

P

O

VGP

PUC, FCBG

   

Bauhinia

variegata

P

C

VGP

     

Brownea

coccinea

P

R

VGP

FN

   

Caesaplinia

coriaria

P

C

VGP

PUC-MB

   

Caesaplinia

ferrea

P

R

VGP

KG

   

Caesaplinia

pulcherrima

HP

AB

GP

     

Cassia

fistula

FSPH

C

VGP

 

I

Beauty

Cassia

javanica

P

O

VP

     

*Cassia

marginata

P

C

P

     

Cassia

siamea

P

AB

VGP

 

I

 

Cassia

spectabilis

P

C

VGP

     

*Cassia

glauca

P

C

P

     

Cassia

grandis

P

C

VGP

     

Cassia

nodosa

P

R

VGP

PUC, FCBG, JNH

 

Cassia

renigera

P

AB

VGP

     

Cassia

roxburghii

P

O

VGP

     

Cassia

surattensis

P

O

VGP

     

Colvillea

racemosa

P

R

VGP

PUC-MB, FN

   

Delonix

regia

PH

AB

VGP

     

Delonix

elata

P

R

VGP

BG

   

Haematoxylon

campechianum #

P

R

VG

FC

   

Hardwickia

binata

S

O

VGP

     

Parkinsonia

aculeata

P

O

VGP

SPC

   

Peltophorum

inermi

P

AB

VGP

 

I

Av

Saraca

indica

P

C

VGP

SPC

   

Tamarindus

indica

PH

AB

VGP

 

D

 

Bauhinia

purpurea

P

C

VGP

     

Bauhinia

variegata var. candida

P

O

GP

N

   

MIMOSAE

             

Acacia

chundra

S

C

VGP

     

Acacia

farnesiana

S

O

VP

     

Acacia

leucophloea

S

AB

VGP

     

Acacia

nilotica

S

AB

VGP

 

D

 

Acacia

suma

S

O

VGP

     

Acacia

eburnea

S

O

VP

     

Acacia

nilotica var. cupressiformis

S

R

VGP

     

Acacia

auriculiformis

P

AB

VGP

     

*Acacia

ferruginea

S

O

P

     

Acrocarpus

fraxinifolius

FP

O

VGP

     

Adenanthera

pavonia

P

O

VGP

FCBG

   

Albizia

lebbek

P

O

VGP

     

Albizia

procera

FS

O

GP

     

Albizia

amara

F

R

VGP

     

Albizia

odoratissima

S

R

VP

     

Calliandra

hematocephala

HP

C

GP

SPC, PUC

   

Calliandra

sp.

P

R

GP

     

Ceratonia

siliqua

P

O

GP

PUC

   

Inga

dales

P

C

VGP

     

Leucaena

leucocephala

P

AB

VGP

 

I

Af

Parkia

biglandulosa

P

C

VGP

     

Pithecolobium

saman

P

AB

VGP

 

I

Av

Prosopis

juliflora

P

O

VGP

     

Prosopis

spicigera

P

R

VGP

Modi Ganapati

   

ROSACEAE

             

Eriobotrya

japonica #

P

O

V

     

RHIZOPHORACEAE

           

Carallia

brachiata #

P

R

V

     

COMBRETACEAE

           

Anogeissus

latifolia

FS

C

VGP

     

Anogeissus

acuminata

F

R

GP

FN

   

Anogeissus

pendula

P

R

VGP

FN, Gokhale Nagar

 

Terminalia

crenulata

F

C

VGP

     

Terminallia

bellirica

F

O

VGP

     

Terminallia

arjuna

F

R

VGP

     

Terminallia

arjuna var. angustifolia #

F

R

G

     

Terminallia

catappa

PH

C

VGP

     

Terminallia

chebula

F

O

VGP

     

MYRTACEAE

             

Callistemon

lanceolatus

PH

C

VGP

     

Eucalyptus

globulus

P

AB

VGP

 

I

Af

Eucalyptus

terticornis

PH

AB

GP

 

I

Af

Syzygium

cumini

FPH

AB

VGP

 

D

 

Syzygium

jambos

F

R

GP

PUC

   

Psidium

guajava

PH

AB

VGP

 

D

 

Syzygium

heyneanum #

F

R

V

     

Syzygium

aromaticum #

P

R

V

     

Barringtonia

acutangula #

F

R

V

     

Eucalyptus

umbellata #

P

R

V

     

Eucalyptus

rostrata #

P

R

V

     

Eucalyptus

leucoxylon #

P

R

V

     

Eucalyptus

crebra #

P

R

V

     

Eucalyptus

citriodora #

P

R

V

     

Couroupita

guianensis

PH

O

VGP

KNP

   

LACYTHIDACEAE

           

*Careya

arborea

F

O

P

N

   

LYTHRACEAE

             

Lagerstroemia

parviflora

S

O

P

     

Lagerstroemia

floribunda

F

R

GP

PUC-MB

   

Lagerstroemia

flos-reginae

PH

O

VGP

     

Lagerstroemia

lanceolata

FS

C

VGP

Vetal Hill

   

*Duabunga

sonneratioides

 

R

P

FN

   

SAMYDACEAE

             

*Casearia

esculenta

F

R

P

N

   

PUNICACEAE

             

Punica

granatum

P

AB

VGP

     

Carica

papaya

HP

AB

VGP

     

Carica

cauliflora #

P

R

V

     

Carica

candamarcensis #

P

R

V

     

Carica

microcarpa #

P

R

V

     

RUBIACEAE

             

*Adina

cordifolia

F

R

P

S

   

Anthocephalus

cadamba

P

O

GP

NIBM

   

Coffea

arabica

PH

O

VGP

     

*Gardenia

turgida

S

O

P

N

   

Gardenia

jasmonoides

P

C

VGP

     

Gardenia

lucida

S

O

VGP

     

Hamelia

patens

PH

C

VGP

     

*Hymenodictyon

excelsum

F

R

P

N

   

Ixora

parviflora

P

C

GP

     

Meyna

laxiflora

FS

R

P

     

Mitragyna

parviflora

S

C

VGP

     

Morinda

tomentosa

S

C

VGP

     

Morinda

citrifolia

S

C

VGP

     

Randia

dumetorum

F

O

VGP

     

Randia

uliginosa #

F

R

VG

     

Gardenia

latifolia

SP

R

VP

PUC, FCBG

   

MEMLASTOMACEAE

           

Memecylon

umbellatum

FS

R

GP

     

SAPOTACEAE

             

Achras

sapota

HP

AB

VGP

     

Chrysophyllum

cainito

P

R

VGP

FN

   

Madhuca

latifolia

F

C

VGP

     

Madhuca

longifolia

F

O

VGP

SPC

   

Mimusops

hexandra

P

O

VGP

     

Manilkara

zapota #

P

R

V

     

Mimusops

elengi

P

C

VGP

     

Diospyros

melanoxylon

F

C

VGP

     

Diospyros

embryopteris

F

O

VGP

BSI, PUC

   

*Diospyros

montana

F

R

P

K

   

OLEACEAE

             

Nyctanthus

arbor-tristis

HP

AB

VGP

     

Schrebera

swietenoides

S

O

VGP

N

   

Olea

dioica

F

R

VP

FCBG

   

APOCYNACEAE

             

Alstonia

scholaris

H

C

VGP

     

Alstonia

macrophylla

HP

R

P

Model Colony

   

Holarrhena

antidysenterica

FS

O

VGP

     

Plumeria

acutifolia

PH

AB

VGP

     

Plumeria

rubra

PH

AB

VGP

     

Wrightia

tinctoria

F

O

VGP

     

Wrightia

tomentosa

F

R

VP

     

Cerbera

odollam #

P

C

V

     

Thevetia

peruviana

HP

AB

VGP

PUC

   

Calotropis

gigantia

H

R

GP

Gultekadi

   

*Asclepias

physocarpa

P

R

P

PUC

   

BORAGINACEAE

           

Cordia

macleodii

F

O

VGP

     

Cordia

myxa

FH

C

VGP

N

   

Cordia

rothii

F

O

VGP

     

Cordia

sebestina

HP

C

VGP

     

Ehretia

laevis

S

C

VGP

     

SOLANACEAE

             

Solanum

grandiflorum

HP

O

VGP

SPC

   

Solanum

verbascifolium #

S

R

V

     

Arcnistus

arborens #

P

R

V

     

BIGNONIACEAE

             

Tecoma

stans

PH

C

VGP

     

Spathodea

campanulata

P

AB

VGP

 

I

 

Bignonia

megapotemica

P

R

VGP

KNP

   

Bignonia

sp.

P

R

GP

EG

   

Crescentia

cujeta

P

O

VGP

PUC-BG

   

Parmentiera

alata

P

O

VGP

FCBG

   

Dolichandrone

falcata

FS

C

VGP

     

Dolichandrone

tomentosum

P

O

GP

BSI

   

Heterophragma

quadriloculare

F

R

VGP

N

   

Jacaranda

mimosaefolia

PH

AB

VGP

 

I

Av

Kigelia

pinnata

P

O

VGP

     

Millingtonia

hortensis

P

C

VGP

     

Oroxylum

indicum

F

R

GP

     

*Stereospermum

suaveolens

F

R

P

N

   

Stereospermum

chelonoides

F

R

GP

Canal Road

   

Tabebuia

argentia

PH

AB

P

     

Tabebuia

avelandi

P

C

GP

     

Tabebuia

rosea

P

O

GP

     

Tabebuia

speciosa

P

O

GP

     

Stereospermum

tetragonum #

F

R

V

KG

   

Parmentiera

cereifera #

P

R

V

FCBG, EG

   

*Markhamiya

platycalyx

P

R

P

     

VERBENACEAE

             

Citharexylum

subserratum

P

O

VGP

Prabhat Road

   

Gmelina

arborea

F

O

VGP

     

Tectona

grandis

F

C

VGP

     

Vitex

altissima

P

R

VGP

FN

   

Vitex

limonifolia

P

R

GP

FN

   

Vitex

negundo

P

AB

VGP

     

Vitex

leucoxylon

P

R

VP

FN

   

POLYGONACEAE

           

Coccoloba

uvifera

P

R

VGP

FCBG

   

LAURACEAE

             

Persea

americana

HP

R

G

MACS

   

Persea

gratissima #

P

R

VG

KG

   

SANTALACEAE

             

Santalum

album

S

AB

VGP

     

PROTEACEAE

             

Grevillea

robusta

P

AB

VGP

 

I

Av

Macdamia

ternifolia #

P

R

V

EG

   

EUPHORBIACEAE

           

Bridelia

retusa

FS

C

GP

N

   

Cicca

distichus

P

AB

VGP

     

Givotia

rotteriformis #

S

O

V

K

   

Hevea

brasilensis

P

AB

GP

BSI, FN

   

Hura

crepitans

P

O

VGP

MACS, FN

   

Jatropa

curcas

S

C

GP

     

Phyllanthus

emblica

F

AB

VGP

     

Putranjiva

roxburghii

P

AB

VGP

     

Euphorbia

tirucalli

S

O

VP

     

Bridelia

squamosa

F

O

VP

     

Mallotus

philippinensis

F

O

VP

FN

   

Excoecaria

bussei #

F

R

V

PUC

   

*Sapium

sebiferum

P

R

P

FN

   

ULMACEAE

             

Holoptelia

integrifolia

FS

C

VGP

     

Trema

orientalis

F

O

VGP

     

MORACEAE

             

Artocarpus

integra

PH

AB

VGP

 

D

 

Artocarpus

incisa var. communis

PH

O

VGP

     

Artocarpus

lakoocha

PH

O

VGP

     

Broussonetia

papyrifera

P

C

VGP

     

Ficus

bengalensis

FSPH

AB

VGP

 

D

 

Ficus

glomerata

FSPH

AB

VGP

     

Ficus

religiosa

FSPH

AB

VGP

 

D

 

Ficus

arnottiana

S

R

GP

     

Ficus

benjamina

PH

AB

GP

     

Ficus

carica

P

O

VGP

MACS

   

Ficus

cellu

S

O

GP

     

Ficus

decora

P

C

GP

     

Ficus

elastica

PH

O

VGP

     

Ficus

hispida

S

O

GP

     

Ficus

lyrata

P

O

GP

EG

   

Ficus

mysorensis

P

O

VGP

     

Ficus

retusa

F

O

VGP

     

Morus

alba

PH

O

VGP

     

Ficus

tesiela #

P

R

V

NCC Ground

   

Ficus

tsjakela #

P

R

V

     

Ficus

diversifolia #

P

R

V

FCBG

   

CASUARINACEAE

           

Casuarina

equisetifolia

PH

AB

VGP

     

Casuarina

cunninghammia

P

R

VGP

FN

   

SALICACEAE

             

Salix

tetrasperma

P

O

VP

DG

   

*Populus

sp.

P

O

P

FN

   

CONIFERAE

             

Agathis

spp.

P

O

GP

SPC

   

Araucaria

cunninghammi

P

R

VGP

PUC-BG

   

Araucaria

excelsa

P

C

GP

SPC, FCBG, EG

 

Cupressus

glauca

P

R

GP

FCBG

   

Cupressus

sempervirens

P

O

GP

FN

   

Podocarpus

wallichianus

PH

O

GP

     

Thuja

orientalis

HP

AB

VGP

     

Callistris

calcarata #

P

R

V

FN

   

Callistris

robusta #

P

R

V

FN

   

PINACEAE

             

Pinus

longifolia

P

R

GP

SPC

   

CYCADACEAE

             

Cycas

circinalis

PH

C

VGP

     

Cycas

revoluta

P

O

GP

FCBG

   

Encephalortus

spp. #

P

R

V

FCBG

   

LILIACEAE

             

Dracaena

arborea

P

AB

VGP

     

MUSACEAE

             

Ravenela

madagascarensis

P

O

VGP

SPC

   

PANDANACEAE

             

Pandanus

tectorius

F

R

VGP

     

PALMAE

             

Areca

catechu

P

C

VGP

     

Borassus

flabellifer

P

O

VGP

     

Caryota

urens

F

C

VGP

     

Cocos

nucifera

PH

AB

VGP

     

Cocos

coronata

P

R

GP

     

Elaeis

guineensis

P

O

VGP

     

Phoenix

sylvestris

S

O

VGP

     

Roystonea

regia

P

AB

VGP

 

I

Av

Archontophoenix

alexandrae #

P

R

V

EG

   

Archontophoenix

cunninghamii #

P

R

V

EG

   

Cocos

plumosa #

P

R

V

EG

   

Cocos

schizophylla #

P

R

V

KG, EG

   

Caryota

mitis #

P

R

V

EG

   

Caryota

rumphiana #

P

R

V

EG

   

Chrysalidocarpus

lutescens #

P

R

V

EG, Simla Office

 

Cocothrinax

argentia #

P

R

V

KG

   

Dictyosperma

album #

P

R

V

EG

   

Latania

commersonii #

P

R

V

BG

   

Licuala

grandis #

P

R

V

EG

   

Licuala

spinosa #

P

R

V

EG

   

Livistona

australis #

P

R

V

     

Livistona

chinensis #

P

R

V

EG, KG

   

Martinzia

caryotaefolia #

P

R

V

EG

   

Mascarena

amaricaulis #

P

R

V

EG

   

Metroxylon

rumphei #

P

R

V

EG

   

Nephrosperma

vanhautteana #

P

R

V

KG

   

Phoenix

rupicola #

P

R

V

Parsi Temple Nana Peth

Ptychosperma

elegens #

P

R

V

KG, BG, EG

   

Ptychosperma

macarthuri #

P

R

V

KG, BG, EG

   

Wallichia

disticha #

P

R

V

KG

   

POACEAE

             

Bambusa

arundinacea

P

O

GP

     

Dendrocalamus

giganteus

P

O

VGP

     

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